Grazia Fichera, Stefano Martina, Giuseppe Palazzo, Rosaria Musumeci, Rosalia Leonardi, Gaetano Isola, Antonino Lo Giudice
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes obtained after 1 year of treatment with elastodontic appliances (EA) in a retrospective cohort of children reporting early signs of malocclusion. Also, a detailed description of the tested EAs was reported. The study sample included 20 subjects, 8 males and 12 females, with a mean age of 8.4 _ 0.6 years, and a control group consisting of 20 subjects, 9 males and 11 females, with a mean age of 8.1 _ 0.8 years. All subjects in the treated group received the AMCOP second class (SC) (Ortho Protec, Bari, Italy) device. Digital impressions were taken along with a digital bite registration in centric relation before treatment (T0) and after 1 year (T1). Lateral cephalograms were also taken at T0 and T1 and cephalometric analysis was performed to assess the skeletal sagittal changes of the maxilla and the mandible (sella, nasion, A point angle, SNAˆ; sella, nasion, B point angle, SNBˆ; and A point–nasion–B point angle, ANBˆ) as well as the changes of the inter-incisors angle (IIAˆ). In the treated group, the distribution of subjects according to the presence of crowding and the pattern of malocclusion changed at T1. In the same group, there was an increase of subjects showing no signs of crowding and a class I occlusal relationship, while in the control group, there was a small increase of subjects developing dental crowding and featuring a worse sagittal relationship (class II) compared to pre-treatment condition. A statistically significant reduction of the overjet and overbite was recorded in the treated group between T0 and T1 (p < 0.05); in the control group, a slight increase in the overjet and overbite was detected at T1, being this increment significanct only for the latter parameter. In the tested group, no significant differences were found between SNAˆ values detected at T0 and T1 (p > 0.05), instead the SNBˆ, ANBˆ, and IIAˆ showed a significant increase after 1 year of treatment (p < 0.05). From a clinical perspective, all clinical goals were reached since patients showed remarkable improvements in overjet, overbite, crowding, and the sagittal molar relationship. Within the limitations of the present study, EAs could be effectively used for the interceptive orthodontic in growing patients.